In Northern Ireland and most western countries, many celebrate the New Year on the 1st January and its eve on the 31st December for any given year, counting 365 days in twelve months. However, based on the different calendars that exist in the world, some suggest that the New Year begins on the 1st December and the 21st March, among other dates. Some calendars have ten months and others just four.
Originally the calendar was primarily for religious and agricultural use; to remember the festivities, and to mark the start and end of the seasons and indicate the time of planting and harvesting crops.
The lunar calendar is governed by the cycle of 29 ½ days of the moon. In ancient times it resembled a woman’s menstrual cycle, with pregnancy lasting 10 lunar months.
Celtic tribes were also governed by a lunar calendar, where the unit of measurement was not the day, like everyone else, but the night.
Western countries use the solar calendar, at least in matters of civil order. The Egyptians decided on 365 days and a quarter, and this has stuck. In the Americas, cosmography was used long before the Spanish conquest. The Mayans were governed by a solar calendar of exceptional accuracy. The solar year is based on the earth rotating the sun, with four seasons.
Due to solar year lasting 355 days 5 hours 48 minutes and 46 seconds, we have a leap year every four years in February.
Chinese New Year
The start date of the Chinese New Year is determined by the ‘lunisolar’ calendar traditionally used in China and other nations such as Koreans, Japanese and Vietnam.
The Chinese New Year begins with the second new moon, or occasionally the third, after the winter solstice Lights (December 22), it can fall between the 21st January and 21st February. In 2015, Chinese New Year begins on the 19th February and corresponds to the Year of the Sheep.
Tibetan New Year
This calendar comes from astronomical traditions, influenced by the Chinese and Hindu calendars. The year has 360 days. The year begins with Losar, which normally occurs in February with the new moon.
Islamic New Year
The Islamic calendar is a lunar calendar. Common years have 354 days and leap years 355 days, with one day added in the last month, Dulhiya. Muharram is the month at the beginning of the Islamic year. Some Muslims mark the start of the Islamic year on the first day